Ali Mohammad Mohammadi, Dariush Nejadansari & Manijeh Youhanaee
University of Isfahan, Iran 



Discourse markers (DMs) assist and persuade EFL classroom interlocutors to monitor their discourse production and comprehension process. This exploratory research investigated the index of pragmatic use (IPU), rate of use, frequency, and the pragmatic functions of well in Iranian university EFL teachers’ and learners’ classroom interactions. The researchers applied Jucker’s (1997) inventory to explore the pragmatic functions of well. The data was collected from four university EFL classes. The results revealed that the IPU was 72%, rate of use was 9.7%, and frequency of distribution was 0.98%. Compared with the London Lund corpus, the IPU and the rate of use were very low, but the frequency of occurrence was very high. The findings indicate the improper and unnatural pragmatic input offered in this EFL context. Also, the instances of well applied by the interactants in the monitoring of discourse comply with Jucker’s index of functions in 90% of the cases by the teachers and in 65% by the students. They overused well as a face-threat mitigator, underused it as a frame, and the teachers’ gender played no significant part. The insufficiency in IPU, rate of use, extra and excessive frequency, and imbalanced approach in pragmatic functions of well provide the evidence for reformulation in EFL education. Classroom discourse variables, i.e. teacher training, material production procedures, and classroom strategies and teaching methodology need to be directed in a way to provide chances for the teachers and the students to observe how native speakers apply well in authentic situations, underline its instances of use, and discuss its pragmatic functions in texts.


Key Words: well, classroom discourse, pragmatic use, functions, DMs


以英語為外語的大學課堂言談中 Well 的語用指數及功能: 伊朗的個案研究 


Ali Mohammad Mohammadi, Dariush Nejadansari & Manijeh Youhanaee




言談標記協助促進了對話者在以學習英語為外語的課堂中有 效檢視自己的言談表現與理解過程。此探索性的研究,乃針對 某伊朗大學以學習英文為外語課堂中的師生對話,探討 well 的 語用指數、使用比率和頻率及其功能。研究者採用了賈克 (Jucker)在1997年提出的諸項論點,用以探索well的語用功能。 研究語料源自四個以學習英語為外語的大學課堂,結果顯示語 用指數為 72%、使用比率為 9.7%,以及頻率為 0.98%;相較於 龍德語料庫來說,語用指數與使用比率非常低,但是使用頻率 相對較高。研究也發現此以英語為外語的環境,提供了不適切 也不自然的語用資源。同時,在九成教師與六成五學生各別對 談的情況中,他們在言談檢視所使用到的 well,與賈克所提出 的功能指數相互呼應。研究對象們過度使用 well 來減緩有損顏 面的語言行為,卻未能實際運用其語句上的框架功能;就教師 性別而言,亦無造成顯著差異。在 well 的使用上,不足的語用 指數跟比率、過度的使用頻率、以及其語用功能上的不協調, 在在說明了以學習英語為外語教學上重整的必需性。課堂言談 要項(如:教師訓練、教材出版過程、課堂策略、以及教學方 法)必須引導師生們能夠觀察以英語為母語者是如何實際使用 well、強調其特點及在教材中的語用功能。


關鍵字: well、課堂言談、語用、功能、言談標記