Christine Chifen Tseng
Writing in L2 is considered a very challenging task by both teachers and students. Language teachers play a critical role in facilitating students’ L2 writing development. Therefore, it is important to explore their beliefs about writing instruction as their beliefs exert influence on classroom practices. This study draws on the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT) to explore three teacher’s beliefs about EFL writing instruction in senior high school in Taiwan. RGT, a qualitative inquiry evolving from Personal Construct Theory, involved three phases of data collection; firstly, the participant described activities in her writing class, which were later grouped and labeled. The activities were the elements, and the labels for activity groups were the constructs, which together formed a matrix for the participant to rate later. The rated matrix then underwent Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The participant’s beliefs were extracted as a result of EFA and follow-up in-depth interviews; sources of their beliefs were identified from analysis of the interviews. The results yielded eight beliefs related to teacher involvement, reading-writing connection, structural knowledge, student efforts, students’ background knowledge, error awareness, status of EFL writing, and writing as thinking. Five sources of beliefs were identified, including previous learning experience, personal writing experience, personal teaching experience, training from a master’s program, and in-service training programs. Knowledge of teachers’ beliefs gives the participants an opportunity to reflect on their own teaching; it also provides information for teacher training programs and in-service training programs on enhancing quality and efficacy of teachers’ EFL writing instruction.
Key Words: EFL writing, teacher’s belief, Repertory Grid Technique, teacher training
以第二語言(L2)寫作一向被學生與教師視為非常具挑戰的任務。教師在協助學生培養L2寫作能力的歷程，扮演關鍵的角色，因此探索教師對於寫作教學的信念是非常重要的，乃因教師信念會影響教師的課室教學。本研究利用凱利庫存方格(RGT)探索三位台灣高中英文老師對英文寫作教學的信念，RGT是源自個人建構理論(Personal Construct Theory)的質性研究方法，可分為三個階段實施以蒐集資料，首先，參與教師描述其寫作教學的課室活動，這些活動會被分類及標示，課室活動就是元素(element)，活動分組的標示即為構面(construct)，二者構成一個矩陣；其次，參與教師給予每個矩陣細格一個分數，填妥的矩陣會進行探索性因素分析；最後，藉由因素分析結果以及深度訪談，便可萃取出參與者的信念；信念的來源會在訪談的分析結果中釐清。研究結果整理出八項寫作教學信念，與教師投入、閱讀寫作連結、作文結構知識、學生努力、學生的背景知識、錯誤知覺、英文寫作的角色、以及寫作即思考等有關。五個教師信念來源包括先前的學習經驗、個人寫作經驗、個人教學經驗、碩士課程的訓練、以及在職訓練。瞭解教師信念給予參與教師反思自己的教學的機會，同時也提供師資培育和在職訓練單位相關資訊，以提升教師在英文寫作教學的品質與效能。