Hosein Vafadar & Thomas Chow Voon Foo & Afsar Rouhi



This study investigated the effects of communication strategies (CSs) on Intermediate Iranian EFL Low- and Mid-Willing Learners' Willingness to Communicate (LWTC and MWTC). Sixty-five intermediate EFL learners were placed in LWTC (n = 32) and MWTC (n = 33) group. All learners attended two discussion sessions as the pretest and two discussion sessions as the posttest. All sessions were audio/video recorded and observed. The learners received a direct instruction of CSs for five sessions. The results revealed that the LWTC learners’ WTC significantly increased as a result of CSs use compared to that of the MWTC learners. The indirect types of CSs were identified as the most frequent strategies applied by all learners. The personality type was not identified as a contributing factor to the learners’ CSs choice. A set of interrelated factors enhancing or reducing learners’ WTC including contextual, individual, and communicative competence factors were identified through stimulated-recall interviews.


Key Words: communication strategies, low-willing and mid-willing, willingness to communicate