D. Ryan Berg

Yichen Lu

Shenghui Cindy Huang



Language learning strategies are an important variable in language learning, as they both facilitate learning and make learning more effective. Previous research has categorized and placed language learning strategies into taxonomies. However, despite calls for more socioculturally-appropriate strategy questionnaires, there is a paucity of language learning strategy inventories designed for specific populations. Because culture and cultural variables determine language learning strategy use, this cross-sectional mixed methods study seeks to develop the Taiwanese Inventory of Language Learning Strategies (TILLS). Qualitative data collected from 736 Taiwanese university students was coded, resulting in 45 language learning strategies. These strategies were combined with the indirect strategies from the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL). A distributed questionnaire resulted in 575 completed surveys that were then used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The findings resulted in 46 strategies across eight factors. Implications and limitations of this research are discussed.


Key Words: language learning strategies, EFL students, Taiwanese language learners, mixed methods, exploratory factor analysis, grounded theory


DOI: 10.30397/TJTESOL.202104_18(1).0003